Pentagon

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Pentagon
Rank2
TypeRegular
Notation
Bowers style acronymPeg
Coxeter diagramx5o ()
Schläfli symbol{5}
Elements
Edges5
Vertices5
Vertex figureDyad, length (1+5)/2
Measures (edge length 1)
Circumradius
Inradius
Area
Angle108°
Central density1
Number of external pieces5
Level of complexity1
Related polytopes
ArmyPeg
DualPentagon
ConjugatePentagram
Abstract & topological properties
Flag count10
Euler characteristic0
OrientableYes
Properties
SymmetryH2, order 10
Flag orbits1
ConvexYes
NatureTame

The pentagon is a polygon with 5 sides. A regular pentagon has equal sides and equal angles.

The only stellation of the pentagon is the pentagram. It and the hexagon are the only polygons with one possible stellation. It and the octagon, decagon, and dodecagon are the only polygons with a single non-compound stellation.

Regular pentagons form the faces of one of the Platonic solids, namely the dodecahedron, along with one of the Kepler–Poinsot solids, namely the great dodecahedron. Pentagons are the highest regular convex polygon to feature in regular polyhedra, and also the highest where a CRF pyramid or cupola is possible.

Naming[edit | edit source]

The name pentagon is derived from the Ancient Greek πέντε (5) and γωνία (angle), referring to the number of vertices.

Other names include:

  • peg, Bowers style acronym, short for "pentagon"
  • 5-gon

The combining prefix in BSAs is pe-, as in pedip.

Vertex coordinates[edit | edit source]

Coordinates for the vertices of a regular pentagon of edge length 1, centered at the origin, are:

Representations[edit | edit source]

A regular pentagon can be represented by the following Coxeter diagrams:

  • x5o () (full symmetry)
  • ofx&#xt (axial)
  • ooooo&#xr (irregular)

In vertex figures[edit | edit source]

The regular pentagon appears as a vertex figure in two uniform polyhedra, namely the icosahedron (with an edge length of 1) and the small stellated dodecahedron (with an edge length of (5-1)/2). Irregular pentagons further appear as the vertex figures of some snub polyhedra.

Other kinds of pentagons[edit | edit source]

The regular pentagon cannot tile the plane by its own without overlap, as the angles around each vertex would not be able to add up to 360°. However, its has been proven that there are exactly 15 families of convex pentagons that can tile the plane.[1]

Various non-regular pentagons exist, all generally having at most a mirror symmetry, or no symmetry at all.

Stellations[edit | edit source]

The pentagram is the only stellation of the pentagon.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Rao, Michaël (2017). "Exhaustive search of convex pentagons which tile the plane" (PDF).

External links[edit | edit source]